One of the first signs lung cancer patients remember noticing when they look back is the inability to catch their breath. “I couldn’t even walk across the yard without wheezing. I thought I had asthma, but how come I didn’t have it before?” is how one woman described it.
Chronic cough or chest pain
Several types of cancer, including leukemia and lung tumors, can cause symptoms that mimic a bad cough or bronchitis. One way to tell the difference: The problems persist, or go away and come back again in a repeating cycle. Some lung cancer patients report chest pain that extends up into the shoulder or down the arm.
Frequent fevers or infections
These can be signs of leukaemia, a cancer of the blood cells that starts in the bone marrow. Leukaemia causes the marrow to produce abnormal white blood cells, which crowd out healthy white cells, sapping the body’s infection-fighting capabilities. Often, doctors finally catch leukaemia in older adults after the patient has been in a number of times complaining of fever, achiness, and flu-like symptoms over an extended period of time.
Most commonly associated with oesophageal or throat cancer, having trouble swallowing is sometimes one of the first signs of lung cancer, too.
Swollen lymph nodes or lumps on the neck, underarm, or groin
Enlarged lymph nodes indicate changes in the lymphatic system, which can be a sign of cancer. For example, a lump or an enlarged lymph node under the arm is sometimes a sign of breast cancer. A painless lump on the neck, underarm, or groin can be an early sign of leukaemia.
Excessive bruising or bleeding that doesn’t stop
This symptom usually suggests something abnormal happening with the platelets and red blood cells, which can be a sign of leukaemia. One woman with leukaemia described bruising in strange places, such as on her fingers and hands, as well as red spots on her face, neck, and chest. Another noticed bleeding gums. The explanation: Over time, leukaemia cells crowd out red blood cells and platelets, impairing the blood’s ability to carry oxygen and clot.
Weakness or fatigue
Generalised fatigue and weakness is a symptom of so many different kinds of cancer that you’ll need to look at it in combination with other symptoms. But any time you feel exhausted without explanation and it doesn’t respond to getting more sleep, talk to your doctor.
Bloating or abdominal weight gain
While this might sound too common a phenomenon to be considered a cancer symptom, consider this: Women diagnosed with ovarian cancer overwhelmingly report that unexplained abdominal bloating that came on fairly suddenly and continued on and off over a long period of time (as opposed to for a few days each month with PMS) is one of the main ways they knew something was wrong.
Feeling full or unable to eat
This is another tip-off to ovarian cancer; women say they have no appetite and can’t eat, even when they haven’t eaten for some time. Any woman who experiences noticeable bloating or weight gain numerous times (the diagnostic criteria is more than 13 times over the period of a month) – especially if it’s accompanied by pelvic pain or feeling overly full – should call her doctor and ask for a pelvic ultrasound.
Pelvic or abdominal pain
Taken by itself, pelvic pain can mean a lot of things. In fact, because it’s a common symptom of fibroids, ovarian cysts, and other reproductive tract disorders, doctors don’t always think of cancer when you describe pelvic pain. Make sure your doctor looks at all possible explanations and does a full exam, since pain and cramping in the pelvis and abdomen can go hand in hand with the bloating that often signals ovarian cancer. Leukaemia can also cause abdominal pain resulting from an enlarged spleen.
Rectal bleeding or blood in stool
“I thought it was haemorrhoids” is one of the most common things doctors hear when diagnosing colorectal cancer. Blood in the toilet alone is reason to call your doctor and schedule a colonoscopy.
Unexplained weight loss
If you notice the pounds coming off and you haven’t made changes to your diet or exercise regime, you need to ask why. Weight loss is an early sign of colon and other digestive cancers; it’s also a sign of cancer that’s spread to the liver, affecting your appetite and the ability of your body to rid itself of wastes.
Upset stomach or stomach-ache
As simple as it sounds, a good old-fashioned bellyache is what tipped off a number of lucky folks, whose doctors ordered ultrasounds and discovered early that they had tumors on their livers. Stomach cramps or frequent upset stomachs may indicate colorectal cancer; many cancer patients say their doctors thought they had ulcers.
A red, sore, or swollen breast
Everyone knows to check for lumps in the breasts, but too often overlooked are symptoms closer to the surface, which can indicate inflammatory breast cancer. Some women described noticing cellulite-like dimpled skin on an area of the breast. Others noticed that a breast felt swollen, hot, or irritated. Red or purplish discoloration is also cause for concern. Call your doctor about any unexplained changes to your breasts.
One of the most common changes women remember noticing before being diagnosed with breast cancer is a nipple that began to appear flattened, inverted, or turned sideways. “My nipple started looking like it was turned inside out,” said one woman. In addition, inflammatory breast cancer also causes nipple problems, such as itchy, scaly, or crusty skin on the nipple — so take any nipple changes seriously.
Unusually heavy or painful periods or bleeding between periods
Many women reported this as the tip-off to endometrial or uterine cancer. Unfortunately, many women also said their doctors weren’t responsive, overlooking or misdiagnosing their complaints as normal perimenopause. Ask for a trans-vaginal ultrasound if you suspect something more than routine heavy periods.
Swelling of facial features
Some patients with lung cancer report noticing puffiness, swelling, or redness in the face. The explanation for this is that small cell lung tumours commonly block blood vessels in the chest, preventing blood from flowing freely from the head and face.
A sore or skin lump that doesn’t heal, becomes crusty, or bleeds easily
Most of us know to watch moles for changes that might indicate skin cancer. But other signs, such as small waxy lumps or dry scaly patches, are easier to miss. Familiarize yourself with the different types of skin cancer melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma and be vigilant about checking skin all over the body for odd-looking growths or spots.
Changes in nails
Unexplained changes to the fingernails can be a sign of several types of cancer. A brown or black streak or dot under the nail can indicate skin cancer, while newly discovered “clubbing”- enlargement of the ends of the fingers, with nails that curve down over the tips-can be a sign of lung cancer. Pale or white nails can be an indication that your liver is not functioning properly, sometimes a sign of liver cancer.
Pain in the back or lower right side
As vague as this sounds, many cancer patients say this was the first sign of liver cancer, known as one of the “silent killers” (another is ovarian cancer). Breast cancer is also often diagnosed via back pain, which can occur when a breast tumour presses backward into the chest, or when the cancer spreads to the spine or ribs.
–Daily Mail, London